新聞標題【民報】【專文】美國國務卿蓬佩奧聲明《美國對南海各國領土主張的立場》全文
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【專文】美國國務卿蓬佩奧聲明《美國對南海各國領土主張的立場》全文

中英對照

 2020-07-22 09:37
蓬佩奧。圖/擷自白宮flickr
蓬佩奧。圖/擷自白宮flickr

美國國務卿蓬佩奧7月13日聲明《美國對南海各國領土主張的立場》中英對照

美國國務院新聞稿連結:美國對南海各國領土主張的立場

U.S. Position on Maritime Claims in the South China Sea
美國對南海各國領土主張的立場

MICHAEL R. POMPEO, SECRETARY OF STATE
麥可‧理查‧龐培奧,美國國務卿

JULY 13, 2020  2020年7月13日

The United States champions a free and open Indo-Pacific. Today we are strengthening U.S. policy in a vital, contentious part of that region — the South China Sea. We are making clear: Beijing’s claims to offshore resources across most of the South China Sea are completely unlawful, as is its campaign of bullying to control them.

美國全力捍衛自由與開放的印度太平洋地區。今日,我們針對該地區一個重要的爭議區域──南海──強化美國的政策。我們說個清楚明白:北京對南海大部分區域海洋資源的主張是非法的,中國採用霸凌方式試圖控制南海資源的行動也是非法的。

In the South China Sea, we seek to preserve peace and stability, uphold freedom of the seas in a manner consistent with international law, maintain the unimpeded flow of commerce, and oppose any attempt to use coercion or force to settle disputes. We share these deep and abiding interests with our many allies and partners who have long endorsed a rules-based international order.

在南海,我們尋求保存和平與穩定,以合乎國際法的方式,守護海洋的自由、維護貿易流動不受阻礙,反對任何採取強迫行為或使用武力來解決紛爭的意圖。我們與許多盟邦與合作夥伴共享這些深深不變的利益,而這些盟友們長期以來都認可遵守制度的國際秩序。

These shared interests have come under unprecedented threat from the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Beijing uses intimidation to undermine the sovereign rights of Southeast Asian coastal states in the South China Sea, bully them out of offshore resources, assert unilateral dominion, and replace international law with “might makes right.” Beijing’s approach has been clear for years. In 2010, then-PRC Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi told his ASEAN counterparts that “China is a big country and other countries are small countries and that is just a fact.” The PRC’s predatory world view has no place in the 21st century.

這些共同利益已受到中華人民共和國前所未有的威脅。北京以恐嚇方式削弱東南亞南海海濱各國的主權權利,霸凌強奪他們的海洋資源,聲稱單方面的主權主張,用「拳頭大說話」的蠻橫取代國際法,北京的惡行惡狀已經人盡皆知好幾年了。在2010年,當時中共的外交部長楊潔篪告訴東南亞國家協會各國外長「你們都是小國,中國是大國,這是事實。」中國這種弱肉強食的世界觀在21世紀沒有立足之地。

The PRC has no legal grounds to unilaterally impose its will on the region. Beijing has offered no coherent legal basis for its “Nine-Dashed Line” claim in the South China Sea since formally announcing it in 2009. In a unanimous decision on July 12, 2016, an Arbitral Tribunal constituted under the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention – to which the PRC is a state party – rejected the PRC’s maritime claims as having no basis in international law. The Tribunal sided squarely with the Philippines, which brought the arbitration case, on almost all claims.

中共沒有任何合法立場可單方面強加其意志於這個區域。北京自從正式於2009年提出「九段線」南海主權主張以來,從來無法提出可自圓其說的法律基礎。在2016年7月12日,基於1982年《海洋法公約》──而中國為簽約國之一──的仲裁庭中,全體一致同意中國的南海主權主張毫無任何國際法基礎。仲裁庭的判決,在幾乎所有主張上,與提出本次仲裁的菲律賓立場一致。

As the United States has previously stated, and as specifically provided in the Convention, the Arbitral Tribunal’s decision is final and legally binding on both parties. Today we are aligning the U.S. position on the PRC’s maritime claims in the SCS with the Tribunal’s decision. Specifically:

正如同美國先前發表聲明,也如同《海洋法公約》所特別律定,仲裁庭的判決是最終判決,也是雙方應遵守的法律規範。今天,我們重申美國針對中國南海主張的立場,與仲裁庭一致,特別是:

◆The PRC cannot lawfully assert a maritime claim – including any Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) claims derived from Scarborough Reef and the Spratly Islands – vis-a-vis the Philippines in areas that the Tribunal found to be in the Philippines’ EEZ or on its continental shelf. Beijing’s harassment of Philippine fisheries and offshore energy development within those areas is unlawful, as are any unilateral PRC actions to exploit those resources. In line with the Tribunal’s legally binding decision, the PRC has no lawful territorial or maritime claim to Mischief Reef or Second Thomas Shoal, both of which fall fully under the Philippines’ sovereign rights and jurisdiction, nor does Beijing have any territorial or maritime claims generated from these features.

◆相對於菲律賓,仲裁庭認定位於菲律賓專屬經濟海域,以及在菲律賓大陸棚上的海域,中華人民共和國沒有法律依據主張海洋權利──包括任何從黃岩礁與南沙群島延伸而來的專屬經濟海域主張。北京對菲律賓漁民的騷擾,以及對那些區域內的離岸能源發展,以及任何中華人民共和國單方面開發那些資源的行動,都是非法的。與仲裁庭的法定判決一致,中華人民共和國沒有任何合法依據主張美濟礁或仁愛暗沙的領土主權與周邊海域權利,兩者都完全屬於菲律賓的主權管轄權之下,北京也不具有任何從兩者衍生而來的任何領土或海域權利。

◆As Beijing has failed to put forth a lawful, coherent maritime claim in the South China Sea, the United States rejects any PRC claim to waters beyond a 12-nautical mile territorial sea derived from islands it claims in the Spratly Islands (without prejudice to other states’ sovereignty claims over such islands). As such, the United States rejects any PRC maritime claim in the waters surrounding Vanguard Bank (off Vietnam), Luconia Shoals (off Malaysia), waters in Brunei’s EEZ, and Natuna Besar (off Indonesia). Any PRC action to harass other states’ fishing or hydrocarbon development in these waters – or to carry out such activities unilaterally – is unlawful.

◆由於北京無法對南海提出合法的自圓其說的主張,美國拒絕任何中華人民共和國對自其所擁有的南沙群島島嶼延伸12海浬(但不可侵害其他國家對南沙群島的主權主張)以外的主張,也就是說,美國拒絕任何中華人民共和國對於(越南外海)萬安灘、(馬來西亞外海)南北康暗沙、汶萊專屬經濟海域、(印尼外海)大納土納島附近的權利主張。中華人民共和國在這些海域,任何騷擾其他國家漁事,或是妨礙油氣開發──或是單方面進行漁業與油氣開發的行動──都是非法的。

◆The PRC has no lawful territorial or maritime claim to (or derived from) James Shoal, an entirely submerged feature only 50 nautical miles from Malaysia and some 1,000 nautical miles from China’s coast. James Shoal is often cited in PRC propaganda as the “southernmost territory of China.” International law is clear: An underwater feature like James Shoal cannot be claimed by any state and is incapable of generating maritime zones. James Shoal (roughly 20 meters below the surface) is not and never was PRC territory, nor can Beijing assert any lawful maritime rights from it.

◆中華人民共和國對曾母暗沙(以及衍生自其的海域)不具任何合法的領土或海域權利。曾母暗沙是一個完全沉於海面下的海底暗沙,只在馬來西亞外海50海浬處,離中國的海岸線卻有1,000海浬遠。在中華人民共和國宣傳中,經常稱曾母暗沙是「中國最南端領土」,國際法很明確的規定:像曾母暗沙這樣完全沉於海面下的暗沙,不屬於任何國家所有,也當然不可能據此衍生出領海或經濟海域。曾母暗沙(大約在海面下20公尺深)現在不是,過去從來不曾是中華人民共和國領土,北京也不可能從它衍生出任何合法的海域權利。

The world will not allow Beijing to treat the South China Sea as its maritime empire. America stands with our Southeast Asian allies and partners in protecting their sovereign rights to offshore resources, consistent with their rights and obligations under international law. We stand with the international community in defense of freedom of the seas and respect for sovereignty and reject any push to impose “might makes right” in the South China Sea or the wider region.

世界不會允許北京將南海當作它的海上帝國,美國與我們東南亞盟邦與夥伴們站在一起,保護它們符合國際法權利義務的海洋資源主權權利,我們與國際社會站在一起,保衛海洋的自由,尊重國家主權,拒絕任何強推「拳頭大說話」的蠻橫行為,不論是在南海,或是在更廣的其他區域。


專文屬作者個人意見,文責歸屬作者,本報提供意見交流平台,不代表本報立場。

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